STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF SOIL: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

DISCUSSIONS

Many of the hydrocarbons are resistant to degradation in the natural environment. The overall degradation rate of hydrocarbons biodegradation in soils is strictly limited by a variety of parameters Rockne et.al 2002. Two of the most important soil factors that affect hydrocarbons degradation are soil pH and available nutrients. The results of the present study reveal considerable effects of soil pH and addition of nutrients (in the form of N-P-K fertilizer) on the hydrocarbons degradation of crude oil contaminated soil.

The results obtained from the detailed remediation studies carried out with soil spiked with different amounts of crude oil under different pH values are presented in Table 3, Table 4 and Table 5. The results estimate the loss of TPH from the crude oil contaminated soil samples for each treatment options employed to study the effect of pH on remediation.

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STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF SOIL: MATERIALS AND METHODS

METHODSCollection of Soil and Crude Oil

Soil for the remediation study was collected from a depth of 0 – 45 cm from a rice-paddy field situated at an uncontaminated area near the Lakowa oil field (District Sibsagar, Assam, India) run by the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGCL), India. The soil was air dried and sieved with a 2 mm sieve (2 mm). This soil had an original pH of 5.0 (1:5 soil-water suspension) with a total organic carbon (TOC) load of 0.49 %. A sample of crude oil was collected from a group gathering station (Lakowa GGS1) of ONGCL under Lakowa oil field, Assam.

Collection of N-P-K Fertilizer

A commercial N-P-K mixture (with N, P, and K in the weight ratio of 12:12:12) was used in this study.

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STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF SOIL: INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

Petroleum or crude oil is a natural product which has very wide range of uses. In the oil producing states like Assam (India), different companies are engaged in exploration, production and transportation of crude oil. A large number of contaminants including hydrocarbons and heavy metals enter into the nearby areas of an oil collecting station (gathering station) through spills, leaks as well as through emissions from gas flaring and from effluents which are likely to pollute the environment.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPULSE PURCHASE: DISCUSSION

DISCUSSION

The research findings demonstrated the positive significance of impulse buying behaviour by customer regarding purchase of new products. The impulse buying decision for new products backed by the urge to get positive feedback by the usage showed significant relationship on some levels. But, the respondents strongly agreed to the fact that they make impulse decisions on new product purchase to avoid negative outcomes caused by using existing products.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPULSE PURCHASE: RESULTS

RESULTSCorrelation Analysis

In order to identify relationships between variables, Pearson correlation analysis is used. The Pearson coefficient can have a value ranging from -1.00 (indicating strong negative relationship), over 0.00 (indicating no correlation is existent) to +1.00 (indicating a perfect positive correlation). The significance of a correlations shows if the statistic is reliable. However, significances may be low due to the small sample size.

Impulse Purchase

According to Higgins (1999) two factors ignite the urge to buy on impulse. They are, need for positive outcome or to avoid previous bad experience. The two hypothesises below are tested accordingly.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPULSE PURCHASE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research design refers to the strategy that integrates the different components of the research project in a cohesive and coherent way (Trochim & Land, 1982).The authors also mentioned that a good research design can minimize the probable alternative explanation of the hypothesised cause-effect relationship. As depicted previously, the aim of this research is to examine the motivating factors that results in purchase or purchase intention of new products. To establish the relationship between different hypotheses and purchase of new products, a positivist approach has been adopted in this research by using existing theories and frameworks to develop the research hypotheses and is associated with a quantitative research (Saunders et al., 2009). By reviewing existing literature, theories, studies and collection of numerical data this research design is tailored to focus on creating a relationship between the theory and research (Bryman & Bell, 2007). The tailoring process or deduction which is associated with quantitative research method is useful when you consider the hypothesised factors. The deduction method also helps to generalize the findings and measure concepts of the research (Saunders et al., 2007).

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SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPULSE PURCHASE: LITERATURE REVIEW

LITERATURE REVIEW

Consumer Behaviour has received considerable attention from scholars. Still, not surprisingly, conclusive empirical evidence has yet to emerge from those past studies (Bagozzi, 1999; Appelt, 2010). New product development is both risky and involves a difficult venture because of a high degree of uncertainty concerning the customer needs (Wind and Mahajan, 1997; Gupta, 2010). Only a small proportion of new products developed satisfy the customer wants; hence it will be highly imperative to understand how customers react to new products and what drives them to purchase a new product. Along with the fact that impulse behaviour of customers is still a mystery, it is important to include this criterion with other driving forces of making customers purchase the new products. Without this significantly relevant factor of impulse purchase, the study of consumer behaviour remains inconclusive.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPULSE PURCHASE: INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

A new innovation often reshapes how people live or work (West, Ford and Ibrahim, 2010). Studies show that 30-50 per cent of new products fail to meet customer expectations; only 10-12 per cent meets commercial success (West, Ford and Ibrahim, 2010; Harmancioglu et al., 2009). Each individual thinks and reacts differently, which makes it even more difficult to accurately analyze the factors that have significant relevance to purchasing behaviour. Over the years, consumer psychology regarding buying products has been a subject of interest for scholars (Dichter, 1947; Haugtvedt, Herr, Kardes, 2007; Harmancioglu et al., 2009). Researches in the past have given us ideas about numerous reasons that can stimulate purchasing a new product.

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FOUR CARDINAL MANIFESTATIONS OF CORPORATE IDENTITY: IDENTITY THROUGH INNOVATION

Innovation is the change that leads to the development of a new performance (Hesselbein et al, 2002). It is the creation and implementation of new ideas in order to add value (Rogers, 1998). Zhang et al. (2004) defined it as the development and implementation of new ideas by people who engage in transactions with others within an institutional context. More precisely, it is the generation of new ideas (Ling, 2002). Innovation is the introduction of new and improved products, services and processes developed for the commercialization of products and services (Gibbons, et al., 1994; see also Australia Bureau of Statistics questionnaire, Section B). Innovative identity, therefore, is the exhibition or the presentation of innovative characteristics including new product or service innovation (Miller and Friesen, 1983), process or technological innovation (Zaltman et al., 1973; Utterback, 1994; Cooper, 1998) market innovation (Gadrey and Gallouj, 1994) discovering new sources of supply and organizational innovation (Schumpeter, 1934).

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FOUR CARDINAL MANIFESTATIONS OF CORPORATE IDENTITY: IDENTITY VIA TRANSFORMATION

TRANSFORMATION

Business organizations are often challenged changes arising from fierce competition from new market entrants, appointment of new Managing Directors/Chief Executives (Johnson and Scholes, 2005). In order to respond to these changes, market actors often pursue transformation oriented programmes that force them to exhibit transformative corporate identities.

The Emergence of Transformative Identity through Transformation Programmes: In today’s fast changing business environment, unexpected and dramatic changes that strike at the core of businesses render organizations quickly and easily vulnerable. Changes in government policies, fierce competition, market changes, economic recession, rapid technological progress, environmental pollution, unjustifiable attacks from stakeholders, and many more have impinged seriously on the activities of business organizations.

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