RETENTION ISSUES OF FACULTY IN HIGHER EDUCATION: DEFINING TALENT

DEFINING TALENT

At the outset, let us embark on an attempt to define ‘talent’. Talent may be defined as the inherent ability of an individual to do a particular task in a particular way. Talent has a connotation of distinction. It is something that sets one apart. The point to be underscored here is that talent is a commodity in short supply and comes at a price. Since it is a scarce resource, it needs to be optimally managed. Organizations across the world are now thinking of including talent management in the gamut of management processes and functions. But what is talent management? Talent management incorporates attracting, retaining and developing the talent pool available to an organization in association with the other functions of management, so that the organization is never rendered bereft of expertise. Education

Talent management is a systematic process of identifying, assessing, developing and retaining people with critical knowledge, skills and competencies. Competence, capability and talents are human assets of organizations. At the workplace, capability could mean member’s readiness to seek, undertake and carry out challenging work assignments. It is grounded in self-efficacy and other self-related phenomena (Mehta 1999). Talent management systems provide an organization with the vehicle of attracting and retaining the right skills at the right time in the right jobs.

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RETENTION ISSUES OF FACULTY IN HIGHER EDUCATION: INTRODUCTION

A nation is built to a large extent in its educational institutions – in its classrooms, laboratories, libraries and playing fields. Educational institutes not only produce highly skilled and enlightened manpower needed for the political, economic and social transformation and development of our country but also shoulder the responsibility of lending dynamism, resourcefulness and intellectuality to it. The teacher is the backbone of the educational system, the maker of mankind and the architect of society. A nation grows with the teachers and with the education imparted to the people. It is in this respect that the role of the teachers acquires significance in shaping society and in bringing revolutionary changes in the development of the country. The retention of this community in educational system especially individual institutes is necessary for the effective and proper use of the resources for rendering maximum service to society through building up the future human-resource pool of the nation.

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RETENTION ISSUES OF FACULTY IN HIGHER EDUCATION

IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Presently, the biggest challenge faced by technical educational institutions in India is the acute shortage of qualified and competent faculties. This has resulted in a scenario where institutions are vying with each other to attract & retain for them the best available faculty talent. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that institutions should design and pursue policies/mechanisms so as to compete well in market place to attract and retain for them the best faculty talent. This paper offers some possible strategies that institutions can adopt to attract & retain for them the best available faculty talent.

The major factors contributing to faculty recruitment and retention are salaries, benefits, start-up and ongoing resources for research, supportive environments, and partner/spouse employment opportunities.

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PKI TECHNOLOGY: A GOVERNMENT EXPERIENCE: UAE PKI Infrastructure

UAE PKI Infrastructure

The UAE system employs multiple Certificate Authorities (CAs) to deal with key requirements for the population, time, and technical aspects of the system. For the purpose of this discussion we are concerned with the population CA, which issues and sign keys and certificates for use in the ID card. The next subsections highlight possible caveats of the PKI infrastructure.

Activating the Private Key

The private key is the most important piece of data that needs to be protected. For the CA, the private key security is so important that it is physically stored on a hardware cryptographic module and protected by split authentication and various other physical access controls. Compromise of this key invalidates all the issued certificates by the CA and thus any digital transaction performed with the keys and certificates in question. The CA private key is stored in a hardware security module and protected adequately through various means.

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PKI TECHNOLOGY: A GOVERNMENT EXPERIENCE: UAE PKI System

During the early phases of the project, the PKI Applet on the card was a contentious issue. Although the purpose of the PKI applet was understood and the need for e-services realized, the application and services associated with it were only broadly understood at the time. It was decided to have a container that would have three key pairs, one for logical access or authentication, one for digital signing, and a third reserved for possible future use for data encryption and decryption. The container was designed to be personalized with the rest of the card and protected with a user PIN. The validity of the digital certificates (keys) in the card has the same lifetime as the card, which could be a maximum of up to five years. A new set of keys would need to be reissued with a new card and the expired public key certificates published in a revocation list.

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PKI TECHNOLOGY: A GOVERNMENT EXPERIENCE: DIGITAL CERTIFICATES

DIGITAL CERTIFICATES

The description of the use of digital signatures above leaves open one security question that must be resolved in an infrastructure for secure electronic commerce: How can the verifier obtain the alleged signer’s public key in a way that ensures that the public key is, in fact, that of the signer? Some mechanism is necessary to avoid the scenario of an attacker intercepting the message, rewrapping the plaintext of the message with his own digital signature, and giving the verifier his own public key. The attacker could pass off his own public key as if it were the public key of the intended signer. The verifier, using the attacker’s public key, will find that the public key is able to process the digital signature on the message he received. Moreover, the verifier will think that the message originated with the signer, not the attacker. The verifier needs a mechanism to obtain the public key of the signer in a reliable way to avoid this kind of substitution.

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PKI TECHNOLOGY: A GOVERNMENT EXPERIENCE: PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY

Cryptography is the branch of applied mathematics concerned with protecting information. Confidentiality is the protection of data against unauthorized access or disclosure through application of functions that transform messages into seemingly unintelligible forms and back again. These processes are called encryption and decryption. One kind of cryptography that can provide confidentiality, authentication, and integrity is symmetric key cryptography, in which an algorithm makes use of a single key used to encrypt data. The same key is also used to decrypt or return the encrypted data into its original form. This one key, called the symmetric key, is very efficient in terms of processing speed and using minimal computing resources, but is limited in the sense that  it is difficult to exchange the key securely without introducing public key cryptography, and because both the sender and the receiver of a message share the same symmetric key, the authentication and integrity is not provable to a third party who does not also hold the key—thus, symmetric cryptography cannot provide the additional security service called non-repudiation.

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PKI TECHNOLOGY: A GOVERNMENT EXPERIENCE: INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

Many governments in the past decade have initiated advanced identity management systems that incorporated PKI technology. This global interest in the technology is based on the need to meet the requirements for higher levels of authentication, confidentiality, access control, non-repudiation, and data integrity. Perceptibly, governments have been under tremendous pressure to deliver internet-based electronic services in light of increasing citizens’ demands for improved and more convenient interaction with their governments.

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CLOUD COMPUTING-SOFTWARE AS SERVICE: CHARACTERISTICS

CHARACTERISTICS

Although the basic definition of cloud computing could also be used in Software as a Service, there are basic differences SaaS have when compared to other forms of cloud computing.

• Network or Online Access – SaaS is an online application or at least, a network based application. Users will never need any installation in their local gadgets which is connected to the local network or the internet. Usually, the application is launched through a browser which could provide access not only to the application but additional services from the vendor.
• Centralized Management – control, monitoring and update could be done in a single location. The businesses that maintain the application will never need to manually make some changes in the local gadget but would provide improvement instead on the online application.
• Powerful Communication Features – Software as a Service is not only based on the fact that it provides functions for online processing, it also has powerful communication features. The mere fact that SaaS is often used online provides a strong backbone for Instant Messaging (Chat) or even voice calls (VOIP).

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CLOUD COMPUTING-SOFTWARE AS SERVICE: THE APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE

APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE

Much like any other software, Software as a Service can also take advantage of Service Oriented Architecture to enable software applications to communicate with each other. Each software service can act as a service provider, exposing its functionality to other applications via public brokers, and can also act as a service requester, incorporating data and functionality from other services. It is important to understand that the SaaS methodology requires system architecture capable of supporting peak usage demands and the ability to process large numbers of transactions in a secure and reliable environment.

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