Our information about hospitals is obtained from the American Hospital Association (AHA) annual hospital inventory survey. We use this information to provide information at three different levels of analysis. First, when we study the incentives of hospitals to adopt technology, we consider the availability of hospital technology at any hospital within a county. For example, CERTIFIED TRAUM CNTR represents the presence of a certified trauma center in a given county, while HOSP PER SQ. MILE represents the density of hospitals. We also consider the number of recorded cardiac incidents which required ambulance service in 1995 (COUNTY CARDIAC PATENTS). Second, in our patient-level productivity analysis, we link hospital characteristics to our patient-level database in order to control for hospital quality as well as analyze the allocation process which assigns patients to hospitals. Third, we consider the hospital as the unit of analysis when we consider how technology investments interact with the share of cardiac patients who are treated in a given hospital. cash payday loans

For each hospital, we consider three main types of variables. First, we characterize the generic emergency infrastructure for a given hospital by whether the hospital is an urgent care provider (URGENT) and the level of certified emergency care (TRAUMA CNTR LEVEL). In our analysis of individual data, we examine the case of cardiac care and so we also look specifically at the cardiac care facilities provided by each hospital. In particular, we observe whether a hospital has a cardiac catheterization lab (CATHETER) and whether it has open heart surgery capability (OPENHEART). Finally, we characterize overall features of each hospital including its size (EMERGENCY ROOM VOLUME; HOSPITAL DOCTORS) and the number of residents (HOSPITAL RESIDENTS).