In addition to the county level variables, we include in our analysis two “911” variables which are drawn from NENA state-level surveys which indicate whether there is implemented legislation guiding the administration of 911 systems (in particular, governing training policies for workers using the systems) (911_TRAIN_LAW) or whether legislation has been passed but not yet implemented (911_TRAIN_PLAN). These variables are intended to be proxies for the level of administrative information and assistance provided by the state.

We further gathered a variety of demographic, political and economic data at the county level. In addition to a number of familiar demographic characteristics, (POPULATION, DENSITY, INCOME PER CAPITA, CRIMERATE, POLICE EXP, HEALTH EXP, each drawn from the City and County DataBook or the Census of Governments), we also characterize the political climate of a community by the Presidential voting shares from the 1992 Election. This election is especially interesting because of the strong showing of Perot, allowing a somewhat more nuanced measure of county’s political demand for public expenditures (Perot voters were noted for their strong beliefs in limited government). advance payday loan