EMERGENCY RESPONSE SERVICES: Mortality – The Case of Cardiac Arrest 2

Of course, both TIME_TO_SCENE and TME_TO_HOSP will depend on the location of a given patient relative to the hospitals, and variation across counties in the average proximity of patients to hospitals is a potential source of unobserved heterogeneity which must be considered in interpreting our results. We partially alleviate this problem in several of our specifications by including controls for TIME_T0_H0SP in the regressions concerning TIME_T0_SCENE, and vice versa. For example, in the analysis of the determinants of TIME_TO_SCENE, the variable TIME_TO_HOSP acts as a control for the remoteness of the patient’s location.

Table 5 reports the means of patient-level variables according to the level of 911 provided in a given county. Only 2,039 of the 24,664 cardiac incidents occurred in counties without 911. The mortality rates are very similar in counties with no 911 or Basic 911: approximately 6.5% of cardiac emergencies result in death. In contrast, even excluding the largest four counties, the average mortality rate in counties with E911 is 7% (see Figure 4 for the distribution of county mortality rates). We further see that counties with higher levels of 911 have lower average TIMEJTCLSCENE and TME_TO_HOSPITAL, while they have longer TIME_AT_SCENE. payday loan debt consolidation

We will explore all of these relationships in more detail in our regression analysis.

COUNTY 911 LEVEL
No 911 Basic 911 Enhanced 911 Enhanced 911 (Excluding 4 largest counties)
# OF COUNTIES 11.0000 16.0000 31.0000 27.0000
# OF CARDIAC OBS 2039.0000 3445,0000 19180.0000 10993.0000
OUTCOME MEASURES
DEAD 0.0652 0.0668 0.0726 0.0707
TIME_TO_SCENE 10.8759 10.1756 8.7503 9.2553
TIME_AT_SCENE 13.9897 14.2517 16.4068 15.4553
TIME_TO_HOSP 15.8141 15,5509 12.5453 13.8118
PATIENT CHAR.
MALE 0.4723 0.5013 0.4757 0.4825
AGE 70.0844 70.0673 69.8090 70.0183
CARDIAC ARREST 0.0510 0.0456 0.1205 0.0494
DEFIB RILLATE 0.5311 0.3358 0.3974 0.3879
GLASGOW TRAUMA SCORE (15=Least Severe; 3=Most Severe; 0=Unknown)
GLASGOWO 0.0711 0.0761 0.0357 0.0259
GLASGOW3 0.0436 0.0369 0.0455 0.0432
GLASGOW4-9 0.0118 0.0134 0.0153 0.0121
GLASGOW 10-12 0.0098 0.0171 0.0171 0.0140
GLASGOW13-14 0.0392 0.0360 0.0414 0.0388
GLASGOW 15 0.8244 0.8206 0.8450 0.8659
INSURANCE STATUS
MEDICARE 0.6714 0.6572 0.6628 0.6738
MEDICAID 0.0520 0.0453 0.0527 0.0505
PRIVATE 0.1751 0.1878 0.1900 0.1846
SELF PAY 0.0181 0.0125 0.0106 0.0142
OTHER 0.0451 0.0229 0.0372 0.0287
COUNTY HOSPITAL INFRASTRUCTURE
CERTIFIED TRAUM CNTR 0.0000 0.0967 0.6380 0.3684
HOSPPER SO- MILE 0.0040 0.0033 0.0284 0.0050
COUNTY CARDIAC PATIENTS 331.7543 687.1756 1467.8430 778.5308
DEMOGRAPHICS
POPULATION 169.3076 226.2671 603.5968 261.0682
DENSITY 0.2812 0.2851 2.1253 0.3925
INCOME PER CAP 11.8924 13.3673 14.8970 14.0029
CRIMERATE 0.0020 0.0020 0.0045 0.0025
POLICE EXP 7.1510 10.4612 74.1042 13.4522
HEALTH EXP 3.9969 8.7517 61.2895 13.6651
% REPUBLICAN 36.9716 47.8389 35.3231 38.1708
% PEROT 21.9413 19.9428 19.9104 22.4042
HOSPITAL CHARACTERISTICS
URGENT CARE CENTER 0.0329 0.3759 0.2082 0.1957
CATH LAB 0.2398 0,6453 0.7205 0.6499
OPENHEART FAC 0.1525 0.3840 0.2929 0.2996
TRAUMA CNTR LEVEL 3.0000 3.0581 3.2049 3.2105
HOSPITAL DOCTORS 4.1187 9.6569 15.4748 14.7493
HOSPITAL RESDIENTS 5.3198 12.0136 32.3299 17.4391
EMGCY ROOM VOLUME 30.425Q_ —-27.0123- —-Ш3126 . 31.0908